In modern times, we are accustomed to seeing science and spirituality as fundamentally opposed. Our thoughts in this direction are possibly guided by the discoveries of Charles Darwin, and the efforts of cosmologists to unravel the mysteries of the universe. Driven purely by reason and logic, we have largely come to view spiritual matters as misleading superstitions which are counter to rational thought. Certainly, empty seats in churches show the direction in which we are heading. Our society has become more secular, more atheistic.
If it is true that science has all the answers, could it be that we are asking the wrong questions? For what it's worth, I'm in support of a separation of church and state, and my reason is purely that those who govern must be objective, whereas faith and spirituality are essentially subjective. I would argue, however, that this very objectivity is why scientific research can not provide the answers to all of our questions.
If you were to ask a scientist who you are, they might respond that you are an organic life form, a creature of a species whose superior intellect and adaptability has shaped the world in which we live and, in terms of evolutionary theory, has enabled us to survive far longer than we would otherwise. They may provide answers beyond the obvious physical description, from the fields of psychology and other social sciences. Maybe your political allegiance or educational background would contribute towards their answer. You grew up in a certain environment, a particular culture. They will tell you facts about yourself. All of this has value, but is an incomplete picture of you as a human being.
Abraham Maslow, whose work I admire a great deal, developed a hierarchy of needs, which is probably as close as scientific research has come to developing a theory of what makes us happy. In recent years, a focus on positive psychology, where people are studied for their capacity for happiness, rather than underlying mental health issues. Of course, the self help industry is still growing, so it would seem we are as far from answers to some questions as we ever were, and possibly more so.
I see my country, and indeed the wider world, falling prey to the cynicism of Neoliberalism. As we become less focused on the spiritual, our defence against this cynicism weakens. In the models of capitalism and communism, there is little room for spiritual thought, as they are purely economic models. Neoliberalism is based on the expectation that people only ever act in their own interests, and science seems to reinforce this view. What of the human spirit? Well, here in the UK, there is a small but growing interest in Buddhism, as one example. Our traditional churches are slowly becoming empty, often closing or being sold for conversion into places of residence, and yet it seems we are still searching for those answers which can not be provided by science.
Maybe I am subject to bias, but it seems that the assumptions of Neoliberalism have become something of a self-fulfilling prophecy. Could we say that people are now more self-centred? Are people increasingly egocentric? Like I said, I may be subject to bias, and it could be that I now see people with little care for the implications of their actions for others due to some expectation to see such an outcome. It is interesting, however, that we have seen a rise in Buddhism, a system of belief founded on the principle that our own self-interest is the root of our suffering.
As I said earlier, spirituality is a deeply subjective and personal matter. Unfortunately, this sometimes manifests as fundamentalism, and you need only read the news to see the more frightening conclusions of such beliefs. I'm not sure how the search for our identity, sense of worth, or place can lead to the atrocities committed presently, or in the past, but I'm sure that science is equally unable to determine why this happens. It is certainly strange that, in a world that is increasingly moving away from spiritual matters, such destructive interpretations of the ancient texts have become so prevalent or, maybe, when we consider that the more moderate interpretations of these spiritual beliefs and traditions are largely derided by the modern world, we should not be surprised by the rise in religious fundamentalism.
My aim is not to answer questions for you, but hopefully to ensure that you are asking those questions in the first place. It could be that wealth, technological advances, your work, greater health and other benefits of the modern world have made you happy. If we can use the growth of the self help industry, or the interest in alternative spiritual traditions as scientific evidence, it would seem that we remain unsatisfied by the answers held by science. I don't believe that either science or spirituality holds all the answers. I would contend, despite the title I gave to this piece, that both are necessary, and it should not be a choice between one or the other. When we shut ourselves off in such a way, our ability to learn from others is effectively closed down.
You may have heard of Carl Gustav Jung. His analytical psychology was based on a combination of science and spiritual enquiry. Maybe he had a point.